A study done in San Antonio Hospital at the University of Padova, Italy, found that coffee may be associated with the risk of prediabetes in young adults with hypertension. Patients who more slowly metabolize caffeine have an even greater risk of hypertension.
The study included 1,180 patients from age of 18 to 45 years with stage 1 hypertension but not diabetes. Genotyping of the enzyme that metabolizes caffeine, CYP1A2, was done in 639 patients. Analysis showed 42% of participants were fast metabolizers of caffeine and 58% were slow metabolizers.
After 6.1 years, 24% of patients were diagnosed with diabetes. Moderate coffee drinkers had a 34% increased risk of developing prediabetes compared with abstainers. Heavy drinkers had twice the risk of developing prediabetes compared with abstainers. However, the increased risk of prediabetes linked with coffee intake was only noticed in slow caffeine metabolizers, with a hazard ratio of 2.78 (P=0.0076) in heavy drinkers. The risk of prediabetes was not increased significantly among the fast caffeine metabolizers.
The outcomes of the HARVEST study propose that in young adults with hypertension, caffeinated coffee should be considered a dietary risk factor for prediabetes. Increased risk applies especially to slow caffeine metabolizers and to patients who are overweight or obese due to additional risk factors. The findings contradict previous epidemiologic studies that have advocated coffee consumption as a means to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- Coffee can increase the risk of prediabetes in young adults with hypertension.
- Increased risk applies especially to slow caffeine metabolizers.
- People who drank more than three cups of coffee per day doubled their risk of prediabetes.
European Society of Cardiology. "Coffee increases prediabetes risk in susceptible young adults September 2014. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140902093427.htm